|Student Learning Outcomes -|
- A successful student must be able to recognize the types of salts presented as strong or non-electrolytes. Secondly, perform the required critical thinking/mathematical analysis of the experimental data to select the one salt that satisfies the conditions given.
- A successful student will demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ computational skills in the analysis of redox reactions and chemistry.
- Successful students will illustrate separation and identification schemes using flow diagrams and apply principles of aqueous solubility equilibria to separate and identify the ions in a solution.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of how to execute common laboratory techniques.
- A successful student will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society in the area of nuclear chemsitry.
- A successful student will demonstrate the ability to make connections between concepts across several areas of General Chemistry as applied to salt solutions.
|Description - |
|Aqueous ionic equilibria of buffers, solubility product constants and formation constants; properties of solutions including factors affecting solubility, energy changes in the solution process and colligative properties;electrochemistry including the thermodynamics of voltaic cells; introduction to coordination chemistry and bonding theory; nuclear chemistry with emphasis on applications; and, time permitting, an introduction to modern materials. Laboratory parallels lecture topics with an introduction to qualitative inorganic analysis.|
|Course Objectives - |
|The student will be able to: |
- demonstrate an understanding of buffer solutions
- classify various aqueous solution equilibria
- calculate the equilibrium constant for various aqueous solution ionic reactions
- demonstrate an understanding of factors that effect solubility of slightly soluble salts
- describe the process of solution formation and the energetics involved
- describe and explain factors that effect solubility
- calculate concentrations of solutions using various units of concentration
- describe and explain colligative properties and apply the mathematical equations that describe these properties
- diagram an electrochemical cell
- define the anode and cathode in an electrochemical cell
- contrast and compare an electrolytic cell and a voltaic cell
- calculate the EMF of an electrochemical cell under standard and non-standard conditions
- calculate delta G and equilibrium constants from standard cell potentials
- perform quantitative electrolysis calculations involving current and time
- describe factors that effect corrosion of iron
- describe the different types of radioactive decay
- describe the difference between fission and fusion
- calculate the energy involved in a nuclear reaction
- use half-life to calculate the age of an object
- describe health and safety issues involving radioactivity
- describe various uses of radioactive nuclides
- identify a coordination compound
- describe the structures and bonding for coordination compounds
- explain color and magnetism of coordination compounds in term of electronic structure
- apply principles of aqueous solubility equilibria to separate and identify the ions in a solution
- summarize a separation and identification scheme for various aqueous solutions.
- illustrate separation and identification schemes using flow diagrams.
- describe some modern materials such as semiconductors, polymers and/or materials for nanotechnology (time permitting)
|Special Facilities and/or Equipment - |
|Chemistry laboratory, safety glasses, Texas Instruments 83, 84, 86 or 89 calculators, specialized hardware for digital data acquisition (Vernier LabPro system) and computers for data analysis. |
|Course Content (Body of knowledge) - |
|Chapters 17, 13, 20, 21, 24, 12( if time permits): |
- Aqueous Equilibria
- Common Ion Effect
- Acid/base equilibria: buffers
- How buffers work
- Calculating buffer pH
- Preparing buffers
- Analysis of acid/base titration curves
- Solubility equilibria:
- Definition of solubility product constant (Ksp)
- Using Ksp to predict relative solubilities
- Determining Ksp from solubility, determining solubility from Ksp
- Factors effecting solubility of slightly soluble salts: common-ion effect, pH and formation of complex ions
- Calculating solubility in the presence of a common ion
- Selective precipitation (separation) of ions
- Simultaneous equilibria involving slightly soluble compounds
- Complex ion equilibria
- Definition of formation constant (Kf)
- Complex ion equilibria and calculations involving Kf values
- Calculation of concentrations
- ppm, mole fraction, molarity, molality.
- Energy changes upon solution formation
- Factors Effecting Solubility
- Nature of solute and solvent
- Colligative properties: vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression and osmotic pressure
- Colligative properties of electrolyte solutions: the van't Hoff factor
- Balancing redox reactions using half reaction method
- Definitions: oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent
- Standard Reduction Potentials: strengths of reducing and oxidizing agents
- Voltaic and Electrolytic Cells:
- Determining cell emf under standard conditions (E¬?cell)
- Sign of E¬?cell, sign of delta G¬? (Gibbs Free Energy), and spontaneity
- Calculating delta G and equilibrium constants (K)
- Voltaic and Electrolytic Cell diagrams
- Reduction occurs at the cathode, oxidation at the anode
- The function of the electrolyte and the salt bridge
- Direction of electron flow
- Cell emf under nonstandard conditions
- Using the Nernst equation to calculate cell emf
- Using cell emf and the Nernst equation to calculate ion concentrations (pH, Ksp)
- Concentration cells
- Primary batteries, secondary batteries and fuel cells
- Corrosion of iron
- Sacrificial anodes
- Molten salts and aqueous Solutions
- Quantitative calculations: relationships/conversions between current, time and amount of a substance oxidized/reduced.
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Different types of radioactivity
- Detection of radiation
- Disintegration series
- Writing balanced nuclear reactions
- Energy Changes in nuclear reactions
- Nuclear stability and binding energy
- Kinetics of radioactive decay and half-life
- radioactive dating
- Uses of radioactive nuclides
- Nuclear fission and fusion
- Health and safety issues involving radioactivity
- units of radiation exposure: rad, rem, gray
- Coordination Compounds
- Basic terms
- Complex ions, ligands, coordination numbers
- Electronic structure
- Color and magnetism
- Modern Materials (time permitting)
- Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators
- Materials for Electronics
- Materials for Nanotechnology
- Qualitative Analysis
- Separation and identification of various ions in aqueous solutions
|Methods of Evaluation - |
- Written lecture examinations on fundamental chemical principles: problem solving skills, conceptual understanding of the material and ability to integrate concepts.
- Laboratory activities, worksheets and reports that parallel lecture topics and include: detailed analysis of buffer systems, titration curves, solubility equilibria, colligative properties, redox chemistry (voltaic and electrochemical cells) and qualitative analysis of unknowns.
- Written lab exams emphasizing chemical equations, problems, calculations, details of experimental techniques, flow diagrams, and graphs.
- Laboratory notebook.
- On-line homework focusing on topics covered in lecture.
|Representative Text(s) - |
|Brown, LeMay and Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 11th ed. Pearson, 2009. |
|Disciplines - |
|Method of Instruction - |
|Lecture, Laboratory, |
|Lab Content - |
|Laboratory develops experimental techniques, critical thinking and data analysis skills, and includes the use of a laboratory notebook. Graphical techniques using Graphical Analysis software are employed for data analysis. Laboratory parallels lecture topics and includes an introduction to qualitative inorganic analysis. |
- use of a pH electrode
- determination of suitable weak acid/conjugate base pairs for a given pH
- calculating amounts of reactants needed to prepare a buffer
- preparing buffers and measuring buffer pH before and after addition of strong acid and base to the buffer
- investigating buffer range and capacity
- Titration Curves
- using a pH electrode to record titration curve data
- graphing of titration curves
- analysis of titration curves for strong and weak acids and bases
- Solubility Equilibria
- experimental determination, via titration, of a solubility product constant
- quantitative investigation of the common ion effect on solubility of a slightly soluble salt
- Aqueous Equilibria
- investigation of Le Chatlier's Principle; shifting equilibria via temperature changes, pH changes and complex ion formation
- writing net-ionic equations for observed reactions
- Voltaic Cells
- use of a voltmeter
- constructing standard voltaic cells
- measurement of the cell voltage
- identification of the cathode, anode and overall reaction for voltaic cells
- comparison of measured cell voltage to literature values
- constructing non-standard voltaic cells
- measurement of cell under non-standard conditions
- calculation of ion concentrations using the non-standard cell voltage
- determination of a solubility product constant
- Electrolytic Cells
- use of a DC power supply
- construction of a electrolytic cell
- experimental determination of the equivalent mass of a metal
- Qualitative Analysis: identification of the cations contained in an unknown solution. Concepts learned in lecture are applied to the separation and identification of the cations.
- solubility product constants and selective precipitate
- complex ion formation
- dependence of solubility on pH
- flame tests
|Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments - |
- Lecture: Three hours per week of lecture covering subject matter from text and related material.
- Reading and study of the textbook, related materials and notes.
- Homework Problems: Homework problems covering subject matter from text and related material ranging from 20 - 40 problems per week.
- Lab: 2 hours lab lecture and 4 hours lab
- Reading and studying experimental background, theory and procedure
- Lab notebook containing the purpose, background, procedure, data, analysis and conclusions for each experiment
- Computer graphing and graphical analysis of experimental data
- Lab Reports: Analysis of data involving quantitative reasoning and calculations, drawing conclusions, critical analysis of results and integration of concepts.
- Worksheets: Problems and activities covering the subject matter. Such worksheets may be completed both inside and/or outside of lecture and/or lab.