  
Student Learning Outcomes 
 Global: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.
 Global: Read and interpret graphs and data.
 Global: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in General Chemistry.

Description  
 Kinetic molecular theory and gas laws, intermolecular forces, chemical kinetics, equilibria, behavior of acids and bases, acid/base equilibrium, and classical thermodynamics, Laboratory parallels lecture topics and includes computer graphing techniques, chemical kinetics, equilibrium measurements, heat transfer experiments, thermodynamics of an equilibrium system, vapor pressure of liquids.


Course Objectives  
  The student will understand gas behavior and be able to do a variety of gas law problems.
 The student will understand and be able to apply the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.
 The student will be able to explain changes in physical states of matter.
 The student will be able to do a series of calculations relating to phase changes and vapor pressure of liquids.
 The student will be able to describe and analyze factors that influence rates of chemical reactions.
 The student will be able to calculate rate, concentration or time variables based on the integrated rate laws.
 The student will be able to express equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in gas phase and in solutions.
 The student will be able to apply Le Chatelier??s principle and understand how Keq and Q are related.
 The student will be able to mathematically apply equilibrium theory to a variety of problems.
 The student will be able to define, measure and calculate pH of aqueous solutions.
 The student will understand weak acids and bases and their behavior.
 The student will mathematically solve acid base equilibrium problems.
 The student will be able to understand the three laws of thermodynamics and their importance in understanding energy changes.
 The student will be able to discuss the concept of entropy and its importance in chemical and physical changes.
 The student will be able to mathematically determine ∆H, ∆S, and ∆G for a chemical system.
 The student will be able to relate free energy changes to the equilibrium constant.
 The student will be able to collect and analyze experimental data and derive the required conclusions.
 The student will be able to analyze linear and nonlinear data graphically using a computer.

Special Facilities and/or Equipment  
 Chemistry laboratory, safety glasses, Texas Instruments 83, 84, 86 or 89 calculators, specialized hardware for digital data acquisition (Vernier LabPro system) and computers for data analysis.

Course Content (Body of knowledge)  
 Chapters 10, 11, 1416, 19:
 Gases
 Kinetic molecular theory
 Gas law problems
 Liquids and Solids
 Kineticmolecular description of liquids and solids
 Intermolecular forces and phase changes
 Properties of liquids
 ClausiusClapeyron equation
 Heat transfer
 Cubic crystal structures
 Chemical Kinetics
 Rates of reactions
 Factors that affect reaction rates
 Integrated rate equations
 Reaction order
 Collision theory and transition state theory
 Arrhenius equation
 Catalysts
 Chemical Equilibrium
 Law of mass action
 Equilibrium constants and their uses
 Le Chatelier??s principle
 Relationship between free energy and equilibrium constants
 Temperature dependence of equilibrium constants
 Acids and Bases
 Acidbase theories
 Properties of aqueous solutions of acids and bases
 Strength of acids and bases
 Autoionization of water and pH scales
 Weak acid and weak base equilibria
 Acid and base properties of salt solutions
 Acid base structure and strength
 Lewis Acids and bases
 Chemical Thermodynamics
 Three Laws of Thermodynamics
 Enthalpy changes
 Hess' Law
 Spontaneity of physical and chemical changes, entropy and free energy change
 Temperature dependence of spontaneity

Methods of Evaluation  
  Written lecture examinations on fundamental chemical principles: problem solving skills, conceptual understanding of the material and ability to integrate concepts.
 Laboratory activities, worksheets and reports that parallel lecture topics and include: detailed analysis of equilibrium systems, acids/bases, thermodynamics, vapor pressure, kinetics, intermolecular forces and crystal structure.
 Laboratory notebook.
 Written lab exams emphasizing chemical equations, problems, calculations, details of experimental techniques, and graphs.
 Online homework focusing on topics covered in lecture.

Representative Text(s)  
 Brown, LeMay and Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 11th ed. Pearson, 2009.

Disciplines  
 Chemistry


Method of Instruction  
 Lecture, Laboratory,


Lab Content  
 Laboratory develops experimental techniques, critical thinking and data analysis skills, and introduces the use of a laboratory notebook. Extensive use of graphical techniques are employed for data analysis. Laboratory topics parallel lecture topics.
 Collection of experimental data, the lab notebook
 Formating a notebook to accepted laboratory standards
 Recording data and observations in ink directly in notebook
 Recording quantitative data to the correct precision of the instrument being used
 Organizing data, if necessary, into columnar format for presentation
 Graphical analysis of data
 Introduction to the Graphical Analysis software package
 Graphing of data in the required manner to observe trends and for analysis
 Fitting of data in either a linear or nonlinear fashion
 Using fitting constants to determine physical constants of a system
 Gas Behavior and gas laws
 Collection of volumetemperature data to demonstrate Charles' law
 Graphical extrapolation to zero volume to estimate absolute zero
 Changes in physical states of matter
 Use of calorimeter to experimentally determine the heat of fusion of water
 Crystal Lattices and unit cells (worksheet and group exercise)
 Structure of cubic crystal lattices: simple cubic, facecentered cubic and bodycentered cubic
 Calculation of percent space occupied (packing efficiency)
 Calculations relating crystal structure, density and atomic mass
 Investigating Intermolecular forces
 Hydrophobic and hydrophylic substances
 Determining the length of a stearic acid molecule
 Investigation of volume and energy changes upon mixing of two liquids
 Chemical Kinetics
 Experimentally observe how concentration influences reaction rate
 Determination of reaction orders by the method of initial rates
 Experimentally observe how temperature influences reaction rate
 Graphically determine activation energy using an Arrhenius (rate constant versus temperature) graph
 Collect and graph concentration versus time data for a kinetic system
 Use of colorimeter to measure absorbance values as a function of time for a kinetic system in solution
 Collecting data for and constructing a Beer's Law graph to convert absorbance values into concentration values
 Application of the integrated rated laws to concentration versus time graphical data
 Use of graphical data to find reaction order, rate constant and halflife
 Calculation of concentration, rate and time variables using integrated rate laws
 Chemical Equilibrium
 Experimentally find the equilibrium constant for a simple system
 Measurement of absorbance values for a system at equilibrium
 Converting absorbance to concentration using a Beer's Law graph
 Calculation of equilibrium concentrations based on an experimentally determined Keq
 Acids and Bases
 Introduce use of pH electrode
 Using common household acids/bases experimentally find the pH
 Using pH find pOH, [OH] and [H+]
 Using pH, rank acids/bases according to strength
 Predict the outcome of a variety of acid/base reactions
 Use experimental pH data to determine Ka and Kb values of various weak acids and bases.
 Thermodynamics
 Experimentally determine, via titration, the equilibrium constant for dissolution of a slightly soluble salt at various temperatures.
 Use the equilibrium data to graphically determine ∆G, ∆H and ∆S for the solution process
 Use the results to make predictions of solubility at various temperatures
 Phase changes
 Measurement of vapor pressure versus temperature data for a volatile liquid
 Interpretation of vaporization in terms of heat transfer and entropy changes
 Using a ClausiusClapeyron (vapor pressure versus temperature) graph to determine heat of vaporization and entropy of vaporization based on experimental measurements
 Investigating the thermodynamic relationship between ∆G, vapor pressure and boiling point
 Vapor pressure calculations and prediction of boiling point for various liquids
 Comparison of the vapor pressure of liquids to intermolecular forces and chemical structure


Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments  
  Lecture: Three hours per week of lecture covering subject matter from text and related material.
 Reading and study of the textbook, related materials and notes.
 Homework Problems: Homework problems covering subject matter from text and related material ranging from 20  40 problems per week.
 Lab: 2 hours lab lecture and 4 hours lab
 Reading and studying experimental background, theory and procedure
 Lab notebook containing the purpose, background, procedure, data, analysis and conclusions for each experiment
 Computer graphing and graphical analysis of experimental data
 Lab Reports: Analysis of data involving quantitative reasoning and calculations, drawing conclusions, critical analysis of results and integration of concepts.
 Worksheets: Problems and activities covering the subject matter. Such worksheets may be completed both inside and/or outside of lecture and/or lab.
