|1. Description - |
|Kinetic molecular theory and gas laws, intermolecular forces, chemical kinetics, equilibria, behavior of acids and bases, acid/base equilibrium, and classical thermodynamics, Laboratory parallels lecture topics and includes computer graphing techniques, chemical kinetics, equilibrium measurements, heat transfer experiments, thermodynamics of an equilibrium system, vapor pressure of liquids.|
|Prerequisite: CHEM 1A.|
|2. Course Objectives - |
- The student will understand gas behavior and be able to do a variety of gas law problems.
- The student will understand and be able to apply the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.
- The student will be able to explain changes in physical states of matter.
- The student will be able to do a series of calculations relating to phase changes and vapor pressure of liquids.
- The student will be able to describe and analyze factors that influence rates of chemical reactions.
- The student will be able to calculate rate, concentration or time variables based on the integrated rate laws.
- The student will be able to express equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in gas phase and in solutions.
- The student will be able to apply Le Chatelier??s principle and understand how Keq and Q are related.
- The student will be able to mathematically apply equilibrium theory to a variety of problems.
- The student will be able to define, measure and calculate pH of aqueous solutions.
- The student will understand weak acids and bases and their behavior.
- The student will mathematically solve acid base equilibrium problems.
- The student will be able to understand the three laws of thermodynamics and their importance in understanding energy changes.
- The student will be able to discuss the concept of entropy and its importance in chemical and physical changes.
- The student will be able to mathematically determine ∆H, ∆S, and ∆G for a chemical system.
- The student will be able to relate free energy changes to the equilibrium constant.
- The student will be able to collect and analyze experimental data and derive the required conclusions.
- The student will be able to analyze linear and non-linear data graphically using a computer.
|3. Special Facilities and/or Equipment - |
|Chemistry laboratory, safety glasses, Texas Instruments 83, 84, 86 or 89 calculators, specialized hardware for digital data acquisition (Vernier LabPro system) and computers for data analysis. |
|4. Course Content (Body of knowledge) - |
|Chapters 10, 11, 14-16, 19: |
- Kinetic molecular theory
- Gas law problems
- Liquids and Solids
- Kinetic-molecular description of liquids and solids
- Intermolecular forces and phase changes
- Properties of liquids
- Clausius-Clapeyron equation
- Heat transfer
- Cubic crystal structures
- Chemical Kinetics
- Rates of reactions
- Factors that affect reaction rates
- Integrated rate equations
- Reaction order
- Collision theory and transition state theory
- Arrhenius equation
- Chemical Equilibrium
- Law of mass action
- Equilibrium constants and their uses
- Le Chatelier??s principle
- Relationship between free energy and equilibrium constants
- Temperature dependence of equilibrium constants
- Acids and Bases
- Acid-base theories
- Properties of aqueous solutions of acids and bases
- Strength of acids and bases
- Autoionization of water and pH scales
- Weak acid and weak base equilibria
- Acid and base properties of salt solutions
- Acid base structure and strength
- Lewis Acids and bases
- Chemical Thermodynamics
- Three Laws of Thermodynamics
- Enthalpy changes
- Hess' Law
- Spontaneity of physical and chemical changes, entropy and free energy change
- Temperature dependence of spontaneity
|5. Repeatability - Moved to header area.|
|6. Methods of Evaluation - |
- Written lecture examinations on fundamental chemical principles: problem solving skills, conceptual understanding of the material and ability to integrate concepts.
- Laboratory activities, worksheets and reports that parallel lecture topics and include: detailed analysis of equilibrium systems, acids/bases, thermodynamics, vapor pressure, kinetics, intermolecular forces and crystal structure.
- Laboratory notebook.
- Written lab exams emphasizing chemical equations, problems, calculations, details of experimental techniques, and graphs.
- On-line homework focusing on topics covered in lecture.
|7. Representative Text(s) - |
|Brown, LeMay and Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 11th ed. Pearson, 2009. |
|8. Disciplines - |
|9. Method of Instruction - |
|Lecture, Laboratory, |
|10. Lab Content - |
|Laboratory develops experimental techniques, critical thinking and data analysis skills, and introduces the use of a laboratory notebook. Extensive use of graphical techniques are employed for data analysis. Laboratory topics parallel lecture topics. |
- Collection of experimental data, the lab notebook
- Formating a notebook to accepted laboratory standards
- Recording data and observations in ink directly in notebook
- Recording quantitative data to the correct precision of the instrument being used
- Organizing data, if necessary, into columnar format for presentation
- Graphical analysis of data
- Introduction to the Graphical Analysis software package
- Graphing of data in the required manner to observe trends and for analysis
- Fitting of data in either a linear or nonlinear fashion
- Using fitting constants to determine physical constants of a system
- Gas Behavior and gas laws
- Collection of volume-temperature data to demonstrate Charles' law
- Graphical extrapolation to zero volume to estimate absolute zero
- Changes in physical states of matter
- Use of calorimeter to experimentally determine the heat of fusion of water
- Crystal Lattices and unit cells (worksheet and group exercise)
- Structure of cubic crystal lattices: simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic
- Calculation of percent space occupied (packing efficiency)
- Calculations relating crystal structure, density and atomic mass
- Investigating Intermolecular forces
- Hydrophobic and hydrophylic substances
- Determining the length of a stearic acid molecule
- Investigation of volume and energy changes upon mixing of two liquids
- Chemical Kinetics
- Experimentally observe how concentration influences reaction rate
- Determination of reaction orders by the method of initial rates
- Experimentally observe how temperature influences reaction rate
- Graphically determine activation energy using an Arrhenius (rate constant versus temperature) graph
- Collect and graph concentration versus time data for a kinetic system
- Use of colorimeter to measure absorbance values as a function of time for a kinetic system in solution
- Collecting data for and constructing a Beer's Law graph to convert absorbance values into concentration values
- Application of the integrated rated laws to concentration versus time graphical data
- Use of graphical data to find reaction order, rate constant and half-life
- Calculation of concentration, rate and time variables using integrated rate laws
- Chemical Equilibrium
- Experimentally find the equilibrium constant for a simple system
- Measurement of absorbance values for a system at equilibrium
- Converting absorbance to concentration using a Beer's Law graph
- Calculation of equilibrium concentrations based on an experimentally determined Keq
- Acids and Bases
- Introduce use of pH electrode
- Using common household acids/bases experimentally find the pH
- Using pH find pOH, [OH-] and [H+]
- Using pH, rank acids/bases according to strength
- Predict the outcome of a variety of acid/base reactions
- Use experimental pH data to determine Ka and Kb values of various weak acids and bases.
- Experimentally determine, via titration, the equilibrium constant for dissolution of a slightly soluble salt at various temperatures.
- Use the equilibrium data to graphically determine ∆G, ∆H and ∆S for the solution process
- Use the results to make predictions of solubility at various temperatures
- Phase changes
- Measurement of vapor pressure versus temperature data for a volatile liquid
- Interpretation of vaporization in terms of heat transfer and entropy changes
- Using a Clausius-Clapeyron (vapor pressure versus temperature) graph to determine heat of vaporization and entropy of vaporization based on experimental measurements
- Investigating the thermodynamic relationship between ∆G, vapor pressure and boiling point
- Vapor pressure calculations and prediction of boiling point for various liquids
- Comparison of the vapor pressure of liquids to intermolecular forces and chemical structure
|11. Honors Description - No longer used. Integrated into main description section.|
|12. Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments - |
- Lecture: Three hours per week of lecture covering subject matter from text and related material.
- Reading and study of the textbook, related materials and notes.
- Homework Problems: Homework problems covering subject matter from text and related material ranging from 20 - 40 problems per week.
- Lab: 2 hours lab lecture and 4 hours lab
- Reading and studying experimental background, theory and procedure
- Lab notebook containing the purpose, background, procedure, data, analysis and conclusions for each experiment
- Computer graphing and graphical analysis of experimental data
- Lab Reports: Analysis of data involving quantitative reasoning and calculations, drawing conclusions, critical analysis of results and integration of concepts.
- Worksheets: Problems and activities covering the subject matter. Such worksheets may be completed both inside and/or outside of lecture and/or lab.
|13. Need/Justification - |
|This course is a required core course for the AS degree in Chemistry. |