Print Version

Effective: Fall 2012

Advisory: Advisory: ENGR 40, 81.
Grade Type: Letter Grade, the student may select Pass/No Pass
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: None
4 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory. (84 hours total per quarter)

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Description -
Introduces practicing engineers, practitioners and engineering students to the field of building energy efficiency and green building technology, with an emphasis on building science and performance engineering. Key topics include understanding buildings as integrated systems, lighting, ventilation, heating and cooling, and energy efficiency as a design principle. Includes an overview of energy programs for financing energy efficiency projects, sustainable design assistance; field engineering (commissioning and auditing); and integration of renewable energy (BIPV). Prepares working students to effectively practice in this field. Laboratory includes real commissioning and auditing work on existing buildings, economic analysis of projects, and working with industry professionals to apply building efficiency skills to real buildings.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. Understand and articulate to key building stakeholders' current building energy use, appropriate energy efficiency measures, and the potential for energy and economic savings
  2. Perform energy auditing techniques, energy use analysis, including benchmarking, in the commissioning or renovation of new and existing buildings
  3. Develop engineering approaches and economic strategies for upgrading or replacing HVAC, lighting, glazing, applying pertinent energy codes and building standards
  4. Analyze the economics of on-site photovoltaic and other alternate energy systems
  5. Use modeling tools to diagram potential approaches to zero net energy buildings
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
  1. Building measurement and tools
  2. Software modeling and energy analysis packages
  3. Small HVAC and ventilation
  4. Lighting demonstration
  5. PV demonstration

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Building energy use, system components and energy units
    1. Heating, Cooling, Ventilation, Lighting
    2. Plug and process loads
    3. Energy vs. power, BTU, MJ, kWh, kWh vs. kW
  2. Overall building performance
    1. Energy use intensity(W/ft?, kBtu/ft?, MJ/m?)
    2. Baseline and benchmarking
    3. Residential vs. commercial metrics
  3. Building Design and Construction
    1. Major players, their roles and credentials
    2. Architect , general contractor, specialty contractors
    3. Building engineers, energy consultants
    4. Electrical, structural, and mechanical engineers
    5. How they are organized, legal implications
  4. Phases of design and construction process
    1. Schematic, design development
    2. Contract documents, bidding and negotiation
    3. Construction/commissioning, certificate of occupancy
    4. Design-build, integrated project delivery
  5. Engineering Economics
    1. Life-cycle cost basics, cash flow diagrams, analysis methods
    2. Simple payback, net present value, benefit/cost ratio, annualized costs, internalized rate of return
    3. Availability of IOU rebates and incentives
    4. Federal tax deductions and California solar rebates
  6. Building science fundamentals
    1. Building Envelope Heat Transfer
    2. Heat Balance and Bin Analysis
    3. Insulation and Basic Heat Transfer
  7. Impact of Energy Efficiency
    1. Economic impacts (effect on GDP)
    2. Environmental impacts (effect on climate)
    3. Energy impacts (effect on resources)
  8. Building impact and occupant considerations
    1. Indoor air quality
    2. Acoustics
    3. Climate Analysis and Psychrometrics
    4. HVAC Comfort/Psychrometric Exercise
  9. Ventilation considerations
    1. Fans, Airflow and Economizers (LW)
    2. HVAC Primary and Secondary Systems (EK)
    3. HVAC Codes and Standards
  10. Energy Standards History/Status
    1. History of Energy Codes
    2. ASHRAE Standards
    3. Title 24 vs. ASHRAE
    4. LEED and Green Building
    5. zEPI Zero Net-Energy Goals for California
  11. Water Heating and Distribution
  12. Lighting
    1. Lighting Design Criteria (SM)
    2. Lighting Codes and Standards
    3. Lighting Controls (SM)
    4. Lighting Analysis and Modeling Software (SM)
  13. Energy Modeling
    1. Data driven vs. forward models
    2. Use and application of energy simulation
    3. Comparing Oakland administration and NREL office building
  14. Rating and Evaluating Buildings
    1. Asset vs. operational ratings
    2. Zero energy performance index (zEPI)
    3. ENERGY STAR portfolio manager and target finder
    4. ASHRAE Building EQ
  15. Integrated Design Principals
    1. Integrated design vs. traditional design/construction
    2. Smaller HVAC equipment
    3. Elimination of systems
    4. Natural ventilation and hybrid systems
    5. Daylighting
    6. Case studies (NREL zero net-energy building)
  16. Commissioning Introduction (GC)
  17. Advanced Building Envelope Design
  18. Building Automation (MH)
    1. System Configurations And Components
    2. Actuators, Sensors, And Controllers
    3. Measurement and Data Collection (RS)
    4. Wireless Sensor Technology (HOBOS) and Data Logging Software and
  19. IPMVP and Data Driven Models
    1. Relationship to IPMVP and performance contracts
    2. Model principles
    3. Sources of temperature data
    4. Concepts of the models
  20. Plug and Miscellaneous Loads
    1. Quantifying plug loads
    2. COMNET estimation methods
    3. Energy Star program
    4. Estimating energy savings
    5. Advanced products and technologies
  21. Combined Heat and Power (HL)
    1. Potential Candidate Buildings
    2. Cogeneration Technologies
    3. Fuel Cells
    4. UTC AND Bloom Installations
    5. Criteria For Cost Effectiveness
  22. RECs, PPAs and Leases (HL)
    1. Tax Credits
    2. Power Purchase Agreements
    3. Lease Arrangements
  23. Photovoltaic Fundamentals (HL)
    1. Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film
    2. BIPV and Grid Connections
    3. PV Incentives and Rebates
  24. PV Exit Quiz and Exercises (HL)
    1. Quiz
    2. Use the CEC PVCALC Software
Methods of Evaluation -
  1. Exams
  2. Lab Reports
  3. Final Exam
Representative Text(s) -
Residential Energy: Cost Savings And Comfort For Existing Buildings, Saturn Resource Management, May 2004. ISBN-10: 1880120127, ISBN-13: 978-1880120125
Retrofitting Office Buildings to Be Green and Energy-Efficient: Optimizing Building Performance, Tenant Satisfaction, and Financial Return Urban Land Institute, January 1, 2010. ISBN-10: 0874201330, ISBN-13: 978-0874201338

Disciplines -
Building Codes & Regulations
Method of Instruction -
Lecture, lecture-laboratory, and field work.
Lab Content -
  1. Energy units and measurements
    1. Measuring building energy
    2. KwHr, therms, BTU
    3. Data recording systems
  2. Electrical safety
    1. 120v
    2. 240/480v
    3. Building measurement tools
    4. Multimeter
    5. Power logger
    6. Infrared meter
  3. Building walk through and energy audits
    1. Exterior and interior observations
    2. Sequence of technical measurements
    3. Examining utility bills and interval data
    4. Baseline and benchmarking
  4. Building envelope analysis of major components
    1. Roof and attic space
    2. Windows and glazing
    3. Integrity of walls and structure
    4. Entrance, doors, and blower door test
  5. HVAC Laboratory
    1. HVAC controls
    2. Air handing and economizers
    3. Cooling uniformity
  6. Lighting Laboratory
    1. Measuring luminosity and temperature
    2. Fluorescent lighting solutions
    3. LED lighting solutions
  7. Energy modeling laboratory
    1. Energy modeling software
    2. Compare modeling to bills
    3. Model Sustainability Base, NREL
  8. Plug loads and appliances
    1. Measuring plug loads with Kill-a-Watt
    2. True load vs. nameplate, load profiles
    3. Building plug loads into a full energy audit
  9. Commercial refrigeration
    1. Types of refrigeration
    2. Restaurants and grocery
    3. Economic analysis / replacement
  10. Water heating / solar thermal
    1. Evaluating age, condition, and insulation
    2. Flash water heating
    3. Solar thermal water heating
  11. Energy management systems and building controls
    1. Energy Management System tools
    2. EMS installation and programming
    3. Building controls and programming
    4. Integrated EMS/BMS, DEMS and Demand Response (DR)
  12. Onsite PV and BIPV
    1. Evaluating energy bill, and PV incentives
    2. System sizing and energy modeling
    3. Residential building design exercise
    4. Commercial building design exercise
    5. BIPV in new building design
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
Reading and engineering and other technical documents related to building specifications, building codes, and preparing engineering and financial documents for energy efficiency.