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Effective: Summer 2015
BIOL 40CHUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY III5 Unit(s)

Prerequisites: Prerequisite: BIOL 40B or equivalent.
Grade Type: Letter Grade, the student may select Pass/No Pass
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU/UC
4 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory. (84 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • The student can analyze and evaluate the relationship between digestive system structure and function, and the role of the digestive system in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
  • The student can analyze and evaluate the relationship between urinary system structure and function, and the role of the urinary system in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
  • The student can analyze and evaluate the relationship between lymphatic system structure and function, and the role of the lymphatic system in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
  • The student can analyze and evaluate the relationship between endocrine system structure and function, and the role of the endocrine system in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
  • The student can analyze and evaluate the relationship between reproductive system structure and function, and the role of the reproductive system in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
Description -
Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system; metabolism; urinary system; fluid, electrolyte and acid/base balance; lymphatic system; endocrine system; and reproductive system.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. Know, recognize and use the terminologies of the digestive system, urinary system, lymphatic system, endocrine system and reproductive system as applied later in subsequent college level biology courses or clinical courses and in registry exams.
  2. Examine, identify and differentiate the components of the systems studied and relate this to their location within the body and to their relationship with other organs. This can later be applied to analyzing and evaluating x-rays, medical records, and case histories.
  3. Describe examples of variation in body structures based on sex, age and disease for the systems studied. This can be applied in subsequent college level biology courses and clinical courses.
  4. Explain the major physiological principles of the systems studied and their homeostatic control mechanism as they function to maintain the health of the body and apply to subsequent college level courses in biology and in the allied health field and registry exams.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Lecture room and biology laboratory equipped with instructor's computer, internet access, ceiling projector, document camera (visualizer), VCR and DVD player. Fully equipped biology laboratory with support of laboratory technician. Materials and equipment to teach anatomy and physiology including; instructor's microscope with attached camera for slide projection, anatomy models, student microscopes, histology slides, preserved specimens, dissection equipment, posters and videos. Laboratory equipment and supplies such as water-bath, glassware, and other chemical or biological reagents for studying the biochemical nature of cell and human physiology.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Digestion:
    1. Introduction
      1. Mechanical vs. chemical digestion
      2. Hydrolysis reviewed
    2. General Survey of the System; Organs and General Histology
    3. Oral Cavity
      1. Mouth
      2. Tongue
      3. Salivary glands - types and locations
      4. Mastication and salivation
      5. Amylase and starch digestion
    4. Anatomy and Physiology of Deglutition (swallowing)
    5. Esophagus
      1. Location, anatomy and histology
      2. Physiology
    6. Stomach
      1. Location, anatomy and histology
      2. Mechanical digestion and storage
      3. Chemical digestion - roles of mucus, hydrochloric acid, enzymes
      4. Regulation of secretion and motility
    7. Pancreas
      1. Location, anatomy and histology
      2. Pancreatic juice - enzymes and their substrates
      3. Regulation of secretion
    8. Liver
      1. Location, anatomy and histology
      2. Blood supply
      3. Bile
      4. Physiology - neutralizing toxins, buffering, plasma proteins, storage, red blood cell destruction
      5. Gallbladder - anatomy and physiology
    9. Small Intestine
      1. Location, anatomy and histology
      2. Peristalsis and segmentation
      3. Enzymes and their substrates
    10. Absorption - carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, and electrolytes
    11. Large Intestine
      1. Location, anatomy and histology
      2. Motility
      3. Absorption and feces formation
      4. Defecation
  2. Metabolism:
    1. Introduction
    2. Metabolism of;
      1. Carbohydrates
      2. Lipids
      3. Proteins
    3. Absorptive and postabsorptive state
  3. Urinary System:
    1. Introduction to anatomy and physiology of system
    2. Renal Anatomy and Histology
    3. Renal Physiology; nephron, collecting ducts, renal circulation
      1. Glomerular filtration
      2. Regulation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
      3. Tubular reabsorption
      4. Tubular secretion
    4. Urinary Tract Function and Urinalysis
    5. Renal Diseases
  4. Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance:
    1. Fluid compartments and fluid balance
    2. Water
      1. Intake and regulation
      2. Output and regulation
    3. Distribution of electrolytes in body fluids
    4. Movement between fluids
      1. Plasma and interstitial fluids
      2. Interstitial fluids and intracellular fluids
    5. Acid-Base Balance
      1. Buffers
      2. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis
      3. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis
  5. Lymphatic System:
    1. Introduction
      1. Lymphatic vessels -structure and location
      2. Lymph nodes
      3. Lymph - composition, origin, flow pattern and fate
    2. Resistance to Disease
      1. Nonspecific Resistance
        1. skin and mucus membranes
        2. antimicrobial substances
        3. phagocytosis
        4. inflammation
        5. fever
      2. Specific Resistance - Immunity
        1. formation of T cells and B cells
        2. antigens
        3. cell-mediated immunity
        4. antibody-mediated immunity
        5. immunological memory
        6. immune system disorders; allergies, autoimmunity, tissue transplants, cancer
  6. Endocrine System:
    1. Introduction to concept of hormonal control and regulation of homeostasis
    2. Overview of hormone effects
    3. Hormones
      1. Chemistry
      2. Classification
      3. Circulating and local hormones
      4. Hormone transport
      5. Receptors
      6. Second messengers
    4. Survey of major endocrine glands; hormones produced and their actions and result of hyper and hypo secretions
      1. Hypophysis
        1. interactions with hypothalamus
        2. anterior and posterior lobe
      2. Thyroid gland
      3. Parathyroid gland
      4. Adrenal gland
        1. adrenal medulla
        2. adrenal cortex
      5. Pancreas
  7. Reproduction:
    1. Male Anatomy and Histology
    2. Physiology
      1. Spermatogenesis
      2. Sperm delivery
    3. Female Anatomy and Histology
    4. Physiology
      1. Oogenesis
      2. Ovulation
      3. Menstrual cycle- menarche and menopause
      4. Hormonal regulation of female reproduction, pregnancy and physiology of birth control
    5. Variations in the reproductive system based on sex and age
Methods of Evaluation -
Methods may include but are not limited to the following:
  1. Lecture Exams: Two in class written objective midterm lecture exams and an in class written objective final lecture exam. Lecture exams emphasize anatomy and physiology concepts presented in lectures and in the lecture textbook. Exams written to assess knowledge and critical thinking ability of students concerning the content material.
  2. Laboratory Exams; Three in class written subjective laboratory exams. Laboratory exams emphasize laboratory content and assess knowledge and critical thinking ability of students concerning the content material. Exams may include; short answer questions, discussion questions, questions relevant to laboratory experiments, lab practical component, or questions generated from models, histology slide, dissection specimens or images of the same.
  3. Written in lab assignment; examples of a written in lab assignment would include lab reports, pre-lab or post-lab reports.
  4. May include additional types of evaluation for lab and lecture.
Representative Text(s) -
Tortora & Derrickson. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 14th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Publishers, 2014. ISBN:9781118345009
Allen & Harper. Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology. 5th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Publishers, 2014. ISBN:9781118344408


Disciplines -
Biology
 
Method of Instruction -
Methods may include but are not limited to the following:
  1. Lecture
  2. Laboratory
  3. Cooperative learning lab exercises
  4. Lab demonstration utilizing models, slides or other lab materials
  5. Demonstration of specimen dissection
 
Lab Content -
  1. Laboratory Topics
    1. Digestive system
    2. Urinary System including urinalysis
    3. Endocrine System
    4. Immune System
    5. Reproductive System
    6. Histology of systems covered
  2. Laboratory skills
    1. Identification of tissues and structures on prepared histology slides of systems covered
    2. Use of laboratory materials such as general laboratory equipment, models and microscopes
    3. Dissection and identification of structures on preserved specimens such as sheep kidney
    4. Ability to follow a protocol, make experimental observations and draw conclusions for experiments involving topics such as metabolism, urinalysis, and the use of blood typing as a tool to learn about antigens and antibodies
 
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
  1. Read assigned lecture textbook chapters (approximately 20-30 pages per week) and corresponding instructional materials (such as lecture notes, chapter readings, study guides, online quizzes, and online resources) in preparation for in class exams.
  2. Read assigned lab textbook chapters (approximately 10-20 pages per week) and corresponding instructional materials (such as lecture notes, study guides, online quizzes, and online resources) in preparation for in class exams.
  3. In class laboratory exercises.