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Effective: Summer 2015

Prerequisites: Prerequisite: BIOL 40A or equivalent.
Advisory: Advisory: Completion of this course with a grade of "C" or higher is highly recommended.
Grade Type: Letter Grade, the student may select Pass/No Pass
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU/UC
4 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory. (84 hours total per quarter)

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Description -
Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, cardiovascular system and respiratory system.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. Know, recognize, and use the terminologies of the nervous system, cardiovascular system and respiratory system as applied later in subsequent college level biology courses, clinical courses and in registry exams.
  2. Identify and differentiate the components of the systems studied and relate this to their location within the body and to their relationship with other organs. This can later be applied to analyzing and evaluating x-rays, medical records, and case histories.
  3. Describe examples of variation in body structures based on sex, age and disease for the systems studied. This can be applied in subsequent college level biology courses and clinical courses.
  4. Explain the major physiological principles of the systems studied and their homeostatic control mechanism as they function to maintain the health of the body and apply to subsequent college level courses in biology and in the allied health fields and registry exams.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Lecture room and biology laboratory equipped with instructor's computer, internet access, ceiling projector, document camera (visualizer), VCR and DVD player. Fully equipped biology laboratory with support of laboratory technician. Materials and equipment to teach anatomy and physiology including; instructor's microscope with attached camera for slide projection, anatomy models, student microscopes, histology slides, preserved specimens, dissection equipment, posters and videos. Laboratory equipment and supplies such as water-bath, glassware, and other chemical or biological reagents for studying the biochemical nature of cell and human physiology.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Nervous System will include:
    1. Introduction of Nervous System Organization
      1. Central Nervous System
      2. Peripheral Nervous System
        1. somatic nervous system
        2. autonomic nervous system
    2. Histology
      1. Neurons
        1. typical neuron
        2. classification by form
        3. classification by function
      2. Gray and white matter
      3. Neuroglia
        1. types within the Central Nervous System
        2. types within the Peripheral Nervous System
        3. myelination and the neurolemma
    3. Impulse transmission and membrane potentials
      1. Resting membrane potential
      2. Ion channels
      3. Action potential
        1. depolarization - repolarization
        2. propagation
        3. all-or-none principle
    4. Synapse and neurotransmitters
    5. Neuronal transmission patterns
    6. Axonal repair and nerve regeneration
    7. Spinal cord
      1. Basic anatomy overview
      2. Spinal tracts
      3. Spinal meninges
    8. Spinal nerves
      1. Number, location and structure of spinal nerves
      2. Plexuses and function of spinal nerves
    9. General pathway of reflexes
    10. The Brain
      1. Introduction to brain structure and function
      2. Coverings; skull and cranial meninges
      3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
        1. structures involved in production and function of CSF
        2. clinical disorder involving CSF; hydrocephalus
      4. Basic anatomy overview
      5. Cranial nerves
        1. pathways, number, structure of cranial nerves
        2. function of select cranial nerves
      6. Electroencephalogram [EEG]
    11. The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. General organization
      2. Survey of activities
        1. parasympathetic
        2. sympathetic
    12. Special senses structure and functions
  2. The Cardiovascular System will include:
    1. Introduction
      1. Comparison of body fluids
      2. Functions of blood
      3. Blood plasma
      4. Formed elements
    2. Blood
      1. Red blood cells
        1. structure and function
        2. hemoglobin
        3. origin and development
        4. homeostasis
        5. life span and recycling
      2. White blood cells
        1. anatomy and types
        2. physiology
      3. Platelets
      4. Hemostasis
        1. vascular spasms
        2. platelet plugs
        3. coagulation
        4. clotting factors
      5. Plasma
        1. components
        2. functions
      6. Blood diseases
    3. Heart
      1. Anatomy
        1. location and size
        2. pericardium
        3. heart wall, chambers, and valves
        4. blood supply to the heart
      2. Physiology
        1. blood flow
        2. valve action
        3. conduction system
        4. cardiac cycle, heart sounds and electrocardiogram (ECG)
        5. determining cardiac output
        6. regulation of heart rate
        7. heart disease
    4. Blood Vessels
      1. Basic types of vessels - histology - functions
        1. arteries
        2. arterioles
        3. capillaries
        4. venules
        5. veins
      2. Hemodynamics
        1. velocity and volume of blood flow
        2. capillary filtration
        3. control of blood pressure and flow
      3. Pulmonary and systemic circulation
    5. Regulation by the autonomic nervous system
    6. Effects of sex, age and disease on the cardiovascular system
  3. Respiratory System will include:
    1. Introduction of structure and function
    2. External (pulmonary), internal (tissue), and cellular respiration
    3. Survey of anatomy and histology - nares to alveoli
    4. Physiology
      1. Pulmonary ventilation
      2. Blood gas transport
        1. oxygen transport
        2. carbon dioxide transport
        3. oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve
      3. Tissue gas diffusion
      4. Regulation of respiration
    5. Respiratory diseases
Methods of Evaluation -
Methods may include but are not limited to the following;
  1. Lecture Exams: Two in class written objective midterm lecture exams and an in class written objective final lecture exam. Lecture exams emphasize anatomy and physiology concepts presented in lectures and in the lecture textbook. Exams written to assess knowledge and critical thinking ability of students concerning the content material.
  2. Laboratory Exams; Three in class written subjective laboratory exams. Laboratory exams emphasize laboratory content and assess knowledge and critical thinking ability of students concerning the content material. Exams may include; short answer questions, discussion questions, questions relevant to laboratory experiments, lab practical component, or questions generated from models, histology slide, dissection specimens or images of the same.
  3. Written in lab assignment; examples of a written in lab assignment would include lab reports, pre-lab or post-lab reports.
  4. May include additional types of evaluation for lab and lecture.
Representative Text(s) -
Tortora & Derrickson. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 14th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Publishers, 2014. ISBN:9781118345009
Allen & Harper. Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology. 5th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Publishers, 2014. ISBN:9781118344408

Disciplines -
Method of Instruction -
Methods may include but are not limited to the following;
  1. Lecture
  2. Laboratory
  3. Cooperative learning lab exercises
  4. Lab demonstration utilizing models, slides or other lab materials
  5. Demonstration of specimen dissection
Lab Content -
  1. Laboratory Topics
    1. Nervous System
    2. Special Senses
      1. one of the special senses selected for presentation
    3. Cardiovascular System:
      1. blood vessels
      2. blood flow
      3. heart structure and function
      4. adult and fetal circulation
      5. blood pressure
      6. conduction system
    4. Respiratory System
    5. Histology of systems covered
  2. Laboratory skills
    1. Identification of tissues and structures on prepared histology slides of systems covered
    2. Use of laboratory materials such as general lab equipment, models and microscopes
    3. Dissection and identification of structures on preserved specimens such as cow eye, sheep brain, sheep heart
    4. Determine blood pressure with use of stethoscope and blood pressure cuff
    5. Additional laboratory exercises may involve for example; the generation and discussion of an ECG (Electrocardiogram) to apply knowledge of conduction system of the heart.
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
  1. Read assigned lecture textbook chapters (approximately 20-30 pages per week) and corresponding instructional materials (such as lecture notes, chapter readings, study guides, online quizzes, and online resources) in preparation for in class exams.
  2. Read assigned lab textbook chapters (approximately 10-20 pages per week) and corresponding instructional materials (such as lecture notes, study guides, online quizzes, and online resources) in preparation for in class exams.
  3. In class laboratory exercises.