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Effective: Summer 2015

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: BIOL 1A, 10, 14 or equivalent; CHEM 1A, 30A, 30B or equivalent.
Advisory: Advisory: One of the following: ENGL 1A, 1AH, 1S & 1T or ESLL 26 or equivalent; completion of this course with a grade of "C" or higher is highly recommended.
Grade Type: Letter Grade, the student may select Pass/No Pass
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU/UC
4 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory. (84 hours total per quarter)

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Description -
Basic human anatomy and physiology. Emphasis on integration of systems and homeostatic mechanisms. Physical and chemical basis of life, histology and integumentary, skeletal and muscular systems. Designed for majors that require fundamental background in human anatomy and physiology.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. Know, recognize, and use the terminology of anatomy and physiology as applied later in subsequent college level biology courses, clinical courses and in registry exams.
  2. Examine, identify and differentiate types of tissues and be able to deduce functions of body organs by the tissues present and their arrangement.
  3. Examine, identify and differentiate the components of the skeletal, and muscular system and relate to their location within the body and to their relationship with other organs. This can later be applied to analyzing and evaluating x-rays, medical records and case histories.
  4. Describe examples of variation in body structures based on sex, age and disease for the systems studied. This can be applied in subsequent college level biology courses and clinical courses.
  5. Know and explain the principle of homeostasis and discuss its importance in the health care field. Describe examples of homeostatic mechanisms together with their roles in maintaining the body in good health and the consequence of the failure of these homeostatic mechanism to health.
  6. Examine the compounds important to cell structure and function. Know and describe the anatomy and physiology of the cell membrane and its importance in cell transport and cell gradients.
  7. Know and explain the major physiological principles of the systems studied and relate them to the maintenance of good health. This can be applied in subsequent college level biology courses, clinical courses and in registry exams.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Lecture room and biology laboratory equipped with instructor's computer, internet access, ceiling projector, document camera (visualizer), VCR and DVD player. Fully equipped biology laboratory with support of laboratory technician. Materials and equipment to teach anatomy and physiology including; instructor's microscope with attached camera for slide projection, anatomy models, student microscopes, histology slides, preserved specimens, dissection equipment, posters and videos. Laboratory equipment and supplies such as water-bath, glassware, and other chemical or biological reagents for studying the biochemical nature of cell and human physiology.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. The Introductory Unit will include:
    1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
      1. Overview of structural organization
      2. Introduction to the systems
      3. Homeostasis
        1. control by feedback mechanism
        2. role in maintaining good health
        3. homeostatic imbalance and role in disease
      4. Terminology of anatomy and physiology
    2. Brief Review of Chemistry
      1. The atom, molecules
      2. Chemical reactions
      3. Compounds of life
        1. water
        2. acids, bases, and salts
        3. carbohydrates
        4. lipids
        5. proteins
        6. enzymes
        7. nucleic acids
    3. Brief Review of Cellular Organization
      1. Introduction to the cell
      2. Structure and function of the cell membrane
        1. cell membrane permeability
        2. cell membrane gradients
      3. Cell membrane transport
        1. active transport
          1. primary active transport - Na+/K+ pump
          2. secondary active transport - symport, antiport
        2. passive transport
          1. simple diffusion
          2. osmosis
          3. filtration
          4. facilitated diffusion
        3. transport in vesicles
          1. endocytosis
          2. exocytosis
      4. Function of cell division
        1. definition and function of mitosis
        2. definition and function of meiosis
    4. Histology
      1. Four basic tissues
      2. Surveys of:
        1. epithelial tissue
        2. connective tissue
        3. nervous tissue
        4. muscle tissue
      3. Glands and their classification
      4. Specialized membrane
        1. mucous
        2. serous
        3. synovial
  2. Integumentary System will include:
    1. Introduction to skin
      1. Structure of skin
      2. Functions of skin
        1. protection
        2. wound healing
        3. synthesis of Vitamin D
        4. regulate body temperature
    2. Components of skin color
    3. Effects of aging on skin
    4. Skin clinical disorders
      1. Albinism
      2. Depigmentation
      3. Psoriasis
      4. Skin cancer
  3. Skeletal System will include:
    1. Introduction to bone
      1. Structure and function of the skeletal system
      2. Parts of a typical long bone
      3. Bone cell types
      4. Composition of bone matrix
      5. Role in homeostasis
    2. Bone tissue
      1. Compact (Dense)
      2. Spongy (Cancellous)
    3. Ossification processes
      1. Intramembranous
      2. Endochondral
    4. Bone repair
    5. Effects of sex and age on the skeletal system
    6. Skeletal system clinical disorders
      1. Osteoporosis
      2. Bone fractures
      3. Bone growth abnormalities
  4. Muscular System will include:
    1. Introduction to muscle
      1. Muscle tissue (three types)
      2. Functions of muscle tissue
      3. Characteristics of muscle tissue
      4. Associated connective tissue
    2. General muscle anatomy and relationships with bones and joints
    3. Microanatomy of the muscle cell (fiber)
      1. Muscle fibers, myofibrils, and myofilaments
      2. Sarcomere, sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubules
    4. Contraction
      1. The sliding filament mechanism
      2. Role of Ca2+
      3. ATP and the power stroke
    5. Motor unit, all-or-none principle
    6. Energy for contraction
      1. Phosphagen system
      2. Glycogen-lactic acid system
      3. Aerobic system
    7. Effects of sex and age on the muscle system
    8. Muscle system clinical disorders
      1. Paralysis
      2. Muscular dystrophy
      3. Muscular hypertrophy
      4. Muscular atrophy
Methods of Evaluation -
Methods may include but is not limited to the following;
  1. Lecture Exams: Two in class written objective midterm lecture exams and an in class written objective final lecture exam. Lecture exams emphasize anatomy and physiology concepts presented in lectures and in the lecture textbook. Exams written to assess knowledge and critical thinking ability of students concerning the content material.
  2. Laboratory Exams; Three in class written subjective laboratory exams. Laboratory exams emphasize laboratory content and assess knowledge and critical thinking ability of students concerning the content material. Exams may include; short answer questions, discussion questions, questions relevant to laboratory experiments, lab practical component, or questions generated from models, histology slide, dissection specimens or images of the same.
  3. Written in lab assignment; examples of a written in lab assignment would include lab reports, pre-lab or post-lab reports.
  4. May include additional types of evaluation for lab and lecture.
Representative Text(s) -
Tortora & Derrickson. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 14th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Publishers, 2014. ISBN:9781118345009
Allen & Harper. Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology. 5th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Publishers, 2014. ISBN:9781118344408

Disciplines -
Method of Instruction -
Methods may include but are not limited to the following;
  1. Lecture
  2. Laboratory
  3. Cooperative learning lab exercises
  4. Lab demonstration utilizing models, slides or other lab materials
Lab Content -
  1. Laboratory Topics
    1. Anatomical terminology
    2. Homeostasis
    3. Cell and tissue identification
    4. Bone taxonomy; survey of axial bones, appendicular bones and markings
    5. Muscle taxonomy; survey of major muscles, origins, insertions and actions
    6. Arthrology; Survey of joint classification and actions
  2. Laboratory skills
    1. Identification of major cell and tissue types on prepared histology slides of systems covered
    2. Use of laboratory materials such as general laboratory equipment, models and microscopes
    3. Ability to follow a protocol, make experimental observations and draw conclusions for experiments involving topics such as homeostasis of cells
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
  1. Read assigned lecture textbook chapters (approximately 20-30 pages per week) and corresponding instructional materials (such as lecture notes, chapter readings, study guides, online quizzes, and online resources) in preparation for in class exams.
  2. Read assigned lab textbook chapters (approximately 10-20 pages per week) and corresponding instructional materials (such as lecture notes, study guides, online quizzes, and online resources) in preparation for in class exams.
  3. In class laboratory exercises.