Print Version

Effective: Summer 2015

Prerequisites: Prerequisite: CHEM 12A or 30A or equivalent.
Advisory: Advisory: ESLL 25 and 235; critical reading skills and knowledge of English sentence structure; ability to comprehend spoken English in academic context.
Grade Type: Letter Grade, the student may select Pass/No Pass
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Natural Sciences Transferable: CSU/UC
4 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory. (120 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • Students will discuss the role of the health care practitioner in prevention of nosocomial infection
  • Students will compare and contrast the role of normal flora, opportunistic and obligate pathogens in both health and disease states
  • distinguish between bacterial and viral pathogens in terms of structure and chemotherapeutic interventions
Description -
Morphology and physiology of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Mechanisms of pathogenicity, host-parasite relationships, the immune response and principles of disease transmission. Techniques of microbial control including sterilization, aseptic procedures, use of disinfectants, antiseptics and chemotherapy.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. use appropriate terminology to communicate about microbes and describe their importance to humans and society;
  2. compare and contrast eukaryotic and bacterial organisms;
  3. describe basic microbial metabolic processes and discuss their significance;
  4. discuss basic genetic principles and their potential applications
  5. examine common human and animal diseases caused by fungi, protozoans and helminths;
  6. compare and contrast viruses with cellular pathogens;
  7. consider the role of microorganisms in the disease process;
  8. compare and contrast antimicrobial drugs used to treat bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoan and helminthic diseases;
  9. identify the role of the host organism and the host microbiome in resisting infectious diseases;
  10. exhibit understanding of the scientific method and scrutinize sources of scientific information;
  11. use appropriate lab safety practices;
  12. use light microscopy to examine and identify microorganisms;
  13. perform common laboratory calculations;
  14. culture microbes under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions
  15. explain the use of microbial genetic techniques to identify microbes and diagnose disease
  16. discuss the role of the human microbiome in healthy and disease states
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Laboratory coats, disposable gloves, texts, and lab notebook. Laboratory equipped with microscopes (oil immersion capacity), gas outlets at each station, autoclave, hot-air sterilizer, two incubators, refrigerator, media preparation area with glass washing facilities. Students need Internet access.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Introduction to Microbiology
    1. History of microbiology
    2. Basic taxonomy
    3. Importance of microbes to humans and society
  2. Basic cell anatomy and physiology
    1. Eukaryotic cells
    2. Bacterial cells
  3. Microbial metabolism
    1. Enzyme structure and function
    2. Anaerobic and aerobic respiration, fermentation
  4. Bacterial Genetics
    1. genes vs. genome (chromosomes and plasmids)
    2. DNA replication, transcription, and translation
    3. Mutations
    4. plasmids and horizontal gene transfer
    5. Basic applications of microbes in biotechnology
  5. Eukaryotic Pathogens
    1. Fungi
    2. Protozoa
    3. Helminthes
  6. Viruses
    1. Structure and replication of viruses
      1. bacteriophage vs. mammalian viruses
      2. retroviruses
    2. Representative viral diseases
  7. Microbes and Disease
    1. Host-parasite relationships
    2. Epidemiology of disease
    3. Pathogenicity and virulence
  8. Control of Microorganisms
    1. Aseptic technique
    2. Antimicrobial drugs that target each pathogen group
      1. selective toxicity
      2. therapeutic index
      3. superinfection
      4. antibiotic resistance and its mechanisms
  9. Immunology
    1. Nonspecific and specific host resistance
    2. Relationship of genetic diversity and susceptibility to disease
    3. Humoral and cellular immune responses
    4. Active and passive immunity
    5. Dysfunctional immune responses
Methods of Evaluation -
  1. Demonstration of mastery of lecture material and critical thinking ability by written quizzes, in class activities, midterm exams, and a comprehensive final.
  2. Demonstration of mastery of laboratory material and critical thinking ability by written quizzes, practical exams, and comprehensive laboratory final.
  3. Demonstration of mastery of the scientific technique by participation in lab activities and classroom discussions, and written and practical lab exams
  4. Evaluation of comprehensive written laboratory notebook including data presentation, critical analysis of results and discussion of appropriate conclusions
Representative Text(s) -
Bauman, R.W. Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy, 3rd edition, New York, NY, Benjamin Cummings Inc., 2010.
Leboffe, M.J. and Pierce, B.E. Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Applcation, 2nd edition, Englewood, CO, Morton Publishing Company, 2006.
Representative online reading:
Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology
OpenStax College Biology Textbook

Disciplines -
Biology or related fields
Method of Instruction -
Lecture, Discussion, Cooperative learning exercises, Electronic discussions/chat, Laboratory, Demonstration.
Lab Content -
  1. Scientific method
    1. Experimental design
    2. Importance of peer review
    3. Evaluating sources of information
  2. Laboratory Safety and Aseptic technique
    1. Universal precautions
    2. Aseptic transfer techniques
    3. Labeling of cultures and specimens
  3. Microscopy
    1. Simple and differential staining techniques
      1. Wet mounts
      2. Gram staining
      3. Capsule stains
      4. Simple stains
      5. Negative staining
      6. Spore stains
    2. Use and care of microscopes
  4. Quantitative techniques
    1. Serial dilutions
  5. Microbial metabolism
    1. Anaerobic culture techniques
    2. Aerobic culture techniques
  6. Microbial genetics
    1. Restriction enzymes
    2. Gel electrophoresis
    3. DNA Fingerprinting
  7. Common eukaryotic pathogens
    1. Yeasts
    2. Molds
    3. Protozoans
    4. Helminths
  8. Control of microorganisms
    1. Physical Methods of Control
      1. Hand washing
      2. UV
    2. Chemical control using Disinfectants and antiseptics
    3. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance
      1. Disc Diffusion
  9. Differentiation/identification of pathogenic bacteria
    1. Common pathogenic cocci
    2. Common enteric pathogens
    3. Identification of an unknown bacterium
  10. Immunology
    1. Lysozyme
    2. White blood cell identification
    3. Use of antigens and antibodies for diagnostic purposes
  11. Epidemiology
    1. Portals of Entry
    2. Modes of Transmission
    3. Control mechanisms
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
Library Assignment:
The objectives of this lab are to prepare students to:
  1. Navigate Foothill's library and online information resources
  2. Use various search engines such as PubMed, InfoTrac, and Google to gather information about a microbiological topic of choice
  3. Evaluate web sites for credibility, timeliness
  4. Discriminate between popular literature sources, peer-reviewed scientific journal resources, and website sources of information
  5. Accurately cite sources of information
  6. Synthesize information from various resources, coherently, in the student's own words
Brief Overview of Assignment:
You will ask a question about something having to do with microbiology (question must be posed at a level consistent with complexity presented in the rest of the course). You will then use peer-
reviewed journals and credible web site sources to find an answer to your question. You'll then
write a short summary (minimum of 2-3 paragraphs) answering your question using the information you found, again at a level of complexity consistent with the rest of the course.