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Effective: Summer 2013

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: V T 83 and 91.
Grade Type: Letter Grade Only
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU
3 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory. (108 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • Thoroughly and systematically perform a pre-anesthetic assessment of a veterinary patient and correctly identify the risk category of that patient.
  • Safely and competently prepare, induce, maintain, and recover a dog and a cat from general anesthesia.
Description -
Principles and practice of veterinary anesthesia for the veterinary technician. Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems relevant to anesthesia. Pharmacology, indications, contraindications and adverse effects of common pre-anesthetic and anesthetic agents. The veterinary technician's role in patient assessment, preparation, induction, monitoring, and maintenance of anesthesia. Anesthesia events, surgical assisting, and post-anesthetic nursing will be performed in the laboratory. Intended for students in the Veterinary Technology Program; enrollment is limited to students accepted in the program.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. List the objectives and expectations for the course, and briefly describe the history veterinary anesthesia, as well as the common definitions and indications for sedation and anesthesia.
  2. Describe the role of the the veterinary technician in the anesthetic event.
  3. Perform a thorough preanesthetic evaluation of a veterinary patient and develop a comprehensive anesthetic plan.
  4. Perform a thorough postanesthetic evaluation of a veterinary patient and develop a nursing care plan.
  5. Identify and explain the function of each of the components of the veterinary anesthesia machine.
  6. Recognize, critically evaluate and respond appropriately to common anesthetic problems and emergencies.
  7. Explain the affects of anesthesia on the nervous system.
  8. Explain the affects of anesthesia on the cardiovascular system.
  9. Explain the affects of anesthesia on the respiratory system.
  10. Safely and competently perform essential clinical skills related to anesthesiology.
  11. Know and articulate the general principles of inhalation anesthesia and successfully manage a veterinary patient.
  12. Safely and competently induce, monitor, and maintain a veterinary patient under inhalant anesthesia.
  13. Demonstrate competency in the use of manual methods of ventilation and mechanical ventilators.
  14. Understand the indications ans common protocols for Injectable agents.
  15. Explain the common protocols and procedures used in the horse, cow, sheep and goat.
  16. Explain the principles of Local anesthesia and list the common protocols and procedures.
  17. Explain the principles of rabbit and rodent and list the common protocols and procedures.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Classroom equipped multimedia presentation and projection equipment. Laboratory equipped with anesthetic machines, E.K.G. and audible cardiac monitors, blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitors, surgical table and light, surgical instruments, and autoclave. Live animal specimens including dogs, cats, and horses, and housing and handling facilities for live animals.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Overview of course objectives and expectations; introduction to anesthesiology for veterinary technicians.
    1. History of veterinary anesthesia
    2. Definitions
      1. analgesia
      2. anesthesia
      3. local anesthesia
      4. surgical anesthesia
      5. general anesthesia
    3. Indications for sedation and types of anesthesia in veterinary medicine.
  2. Role of the veterinary technician in anesthesia.
    1. Member of the veterinary team
    2. Legal requirements.
  3. The Preanesthetic Evaluation
    1. Preanesthetic patient evaluation
      1. History, physical exam, minimum data base, ancillary tests
      2. Assignment of anesthetic risk/patient status
      3. Formulation of anesthetic plan
    2. Preanesthetic drugs: Indications, contraindications, pharmacology, administration.
      1. anticholinergics
      2. tranquilizers: phenothiazines, butyrophenones, benzodiazepenes
      3. narcotics
      4. alpha-agonists
      5. dissociatives
      6. propofol
  4. The Postanesthetic Period
    1. Extubation Timing and procedure
    2. Monitoring the Anesthetized Patient
      1. Temperature Monitoring
      2. Pain Assessment
      3. Level of Consciousness
      4. Vital Signs
  5. Components, Function, and Use of the Anesthetic Machine.
    1. Compressed Gases
      1. Types
      2. Safety Considerations
    2. In-the-circle and out-of-the-circle vaporizers
    3. Open, semi-open, semi-closed, and closed systems
    4. Re-breathing and non-rebreathing patient circuits
    5. Care and Maintenance
  6. Common Anesthetic Problems and Emergencies
    1. Prevention
    2. Recognition
    3. Nursing Interventions
    4. Assembling an Emergency "Crash Kit"
      1. Equipment
      2. Supplies
      3. Drugs
    5. C.P.R. and resuscitation procedures
  7. Review of relevant nervous system anatomy and physiology
    1. Anatomy Review
    2. Physiology Review.
  8. Review of relevant cardiovascular system anatomy and physiology
    1. Anatomy Review
    2. Physiology Review.
  9. Review of relevant respiratory system anatomy and physiology
    1. Anatomy Review
    2. Physiology Review.
  10. Essential Clinical Skills
    1. Intravenous Catheterization
    2. Endotracheal Intubation
    3. Suturing
      1. Suture Material and Needles
      2. Instrumentation
      3. Suture Patterns
  11. Principles of Inhalation Anesthesia
    1. Partial pressures, pressure/volume relationships, partition coefficients, solubility, second-gas effect, M.A.C., "hydraulic model" of distribution
    2. Anesthetic Vaporizers
      1. Types
      2. Function and Use
    3. Induction and maintenance with inhalation anesthesia
    4. Indications, pharmacology, and uses of inhalation anesthetic agents
      1. Nitrous Oxide
      2. Halothane
      3. Isoflurane
      4. Sevoflurane
    5. Waste Anesthetic Gas
      1. Health hazards in occupational exposure
      2. Active and passive scavenging systems
  12. Patient Induction, Monitoring, and Maintenance
    1. Assessment of anesthetic depth
      1. Stages and Planes of Anesthesia
    2. Assessment of Physiological Status
      1. Assessment of Level of Consciousness
      2. Interpretation of Ocular Signs
      3. Assessment of Reflexes
      4. Assessment of Muscle Tone
      5. Assessment of Pain Perception
    3. Monitoring Equipment
      1. Pulse Oximetry
      2. Capnography
      3. ECG
      4. Body Temperature
    4. Anesthetic Records
  13. Controlled ventilation
    1. Manual Methods of Ventilation
    2. Mechanical Ventilation
      1. Ventilator Types
      2. Practical Ventilator Use
  14. Indications, pharmacology, administration, and legal restrictions of injectable induction and maintenance anesthetic agents.
    1. Barbiturates
    2. Narcotics
    3. Neuroleptanesthetics
    4. Dissociative Anesthetics
    5. Alpha-agonists
    6. Propofol
    7. Balanced Anesthesia
  15. Equine and Ruminant Anesthesia
    1. Behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic considerations
    2. Assessment of Anesthetic Depth
    3. Monitoring
    4. Standing Chemical Restraint
    5. General Anesthesia
    6. Common Protocols
      1. Horse
      2. Cow
      3. Sheep
      4. Goat
  16. Local Anesthesia
    1. Indications in small animal and large animals
    2. Types and Techniques
    3. Local Anesthetic Agents
    4. Common Protocols
  17. Anesthesia of Rabbits and Rodents
    1. Rabbits
      1. Common Protocols
      2. monitoring and Management
    2. Rodents
      1. Common protocols
      2. Monitoring and Managment
Methods of Evaluation -
  1. Written examinations.
  2. Written clinical case report requiring library and Internet research.
  3. Observation of the practical application of anesthetic management, surgical assistance, and patient care skills in the laboratory setting.
  4. The laboratory performance grade will be based on demonstration of technical competence, preparedness, "consciousness", and completion of anesthetic records.
  5. Emphasis is on essential skill development and hands-on experience in all required areas.
  6. Practical training in the American Veterinary Medical Association
Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities List of
Essential Skills Expected of Graduate Veterinary Technicians using a set of
Standard Criteria as a guideline for the accomplishment of performance
Representative Text(s) -
Thomas, J. A. and Lerch, P., Anesthesia and Analgesia for Veterinary Technicians. 4th ed. Mosby-Elsevier, 2011.

Disciplines -
Veterinary Technology.
Method of Instruction -
  1. Lecture
  2. Discussion
  3. Demonstrations
  4. Cooperative Learning Exercises
  5. Oral Presentations
  6. Independent Study
  7. Practical Laboratory Skills Practice.
Lab Content -
Weekly labs covering all aspects of anesthesia including:
  1. physical exams,
  2. charting,
  3. clinical pathology,
  4. anesthetic machines,
  5. IV catheters,
  6. endotracheal tubes,
  7. anesthetic monitoring equipment,
  8. prevention and treatment of anesthetic emergencies,
  9. aseptic technique, gowning and gloving for surgery,
  10. instrument handling and suturing, demonstrations of anesthesia.

The latter labs are dedicated to the student demonstrating all of these skills for actual live patient anesthesia and surgery.
The laboratory section allows for the practical application of principles and techniques presented in the lecture, utilizing anesthetic and monitoring equipment and live animal patients. Approximately the first half of the quarter's laboratory sessions will be spent familiarizing students with the use of equipment and the performance of techniques such as catheterization and intubation. During the remainder of the sessions, actual surgeries will be performed by the veterinarian instructor on live patients. Students will serve as anesthetist, surgical assistant, patient prep nurse, and "float" nurse on a rotating basis.
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
  1. Reading Assignments: Weekly reading assignments from text, class handouts, and outside sources ranging from 30 to 60 pages per week.
  2. Written short answer essay questions.
  3. Six written case studies.