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Effective: Fall 2012

Prerequisites: Prerequisite: R T 52C or current certification in Radiologic Technology or Radiation Therapy Technology.
Grade Type: Letter Grade Only
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU
40 hours lecture, 15 hours laboratory. This course does not meet a full 12 weeks. (55 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • Identify and describe various types of regulatory provisions and radiation safety measures associated with fluoroscopy.
  • Identify components and their functions of the x-ray image intensifier .
Description -
Principles of radiation protection and fluoroscopic equipment, application of special equipment, illumination and photometry, anatomy and physiology of the eye and relationship of internal organs. Intended for students in the Radiologic Technology Program; enrollment is limited to students accepted in the program.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. compare image quality factors associated with fluoroscopy with general radiography
  2. cite the regulatory provisions and radiation safety measures of fluoroscopic equipment
  3. identify components of ancillary fluoroscopic equipment.
  4. identify components of a fluoroscopic image intensifier.
  5. describe how fluoroscopic television systems operate.
  6. recognize various image recording systems.
  7. describe how new types of fluoroscopic special equipment function and safe application for each.
  8. define and discuss the regulations and guidelines associated with mobile image intensified units.
  9. describe anatomy and physiology of the eye.
  10. recognize relationship of internal organs in cross-sectional anatomy mode.
  11. identify and describe various ways of maintaining quality control in fluoroscopy.
  12. describe illumination and photometry.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
  1. On or off campus energized x-ray laboratory.
  2. Ionization chamber
  3. kV test tool
  4. Phantoms
  5. Focal spot test tool

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Quality factors of fluoroscopy vs general radiography (L-L)
    1. x-ray beam attenuation including filtration, patient factors, grids, inverse square law
    2. x-ray beam restrictors (collimation)
    3. image geometry, including magnification, distortion, penumbra, motion
    4. image clarity, including contrast
    5. image quality
  2. Regulatory Provisions and Radiation Safety, to include the following: (L-L)
    1. installation of fluoroscopy equipment
    2. primary protective barrier
    3. secondary protective barriers
    4. occupancy factor (T)
    5. work load factor (W)
    6. use factor (U)
    7. mobile screens
    8. bucky slot cover
    9. protective curtains or drape
    10. collimation
    11. cumulative timer
    12. autobrightness control
    13. technical factors
    14. excessive light
    15. x-ray intensity
    16. x-ray quality
    17. protective clothing
    18. lead glass goggles and glasses
    19. isoexposure curves (different examinations - upright and horizontal table)
    20. radiation dose for patient for various examinations
    21. radiation exposure to operator and others
    22. definitions pertaining to fluoroscopy equipment
  3. Fluoroscopy Equipment, to include the following: (L-L)
    1. construction of different types of units
    2. operating technical factors
    3. timing
    4. filtration
    5. x-ray beam restriction
    6. safety factors
    7. inverse square law
    8. exposure control
    9. statistical quality of fluoroscopic image
    10. spotfilming device
  4. X-ray Image Intensifier, to include the following: (L-L)
    1. components
    2. types (design)
    3. brightness gain
    4. image quality
    5. contrast
    6. resolution
    7. distortion
    8. quantum mottle
    9. viewing systems
  5. Television, to include the following: (L-L)
    1. closed circuit systems
    2. video signal production (cameras)
    3. video signal reproduction (monitor)
    4. image quality
    5. resolution
    6. lag
    7. brightness
  6. Image Recording, to include the following: (L-L)
    1. still cameras
    2. cine cameras
    3. videotape and recording
    4. video disc and recording
    5. cassette
  7. Application and Special Equipment, with emphasis on the following:
    1. remote control units
    2. specialized procedures
    3. emergency room procedures
    4. spotfilming
    5. cinefluorography
    6. patient factors
  8. Mobile Image Intensified Unit (C-Arm) to include: (L-L)
    1. special requirements
    2. source-to-skin distance
    3. x-ray beam intensity
    4. special applications
    5. video disc applications
    6. isoexposure curves for various examinations
  9. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye, with emphasis on: (Lec)
    1. anatomy of the eye
    2. optical system of the eye
    3. receptor system
    4. color vision
    5. rod and cone sensitivity to different wavelength light
    6. visual acuity
    7. integration or recognition time
    8. intensity discrimination
    9. illumination and photometry
    10. contrast perception
  10. Fluoroscopic Localization Techniques and Radiologic Anatomy, to include: (L-L)
    1. parallax method
    2. right angle method
    3. radiopaque method
    4. gallbladder fluoroscopy and anatomy
    5. terminal ileum fluoroscopy and anatomy
    6. knee arthrography and anatomy
  11. Quality Control to include: (L-L)
    1. minimum source-to-table top distance beam restriction system
    2. resolution performance
    3. low contrast performance
    4. grid alignment
    5. fluoroscopic exposure rate
    6. fluoroscopic beam quality
    7. automatic exposure control system
  12. Illumination and Photometry to include: (L-L)
    1. candle power
    2. foot-candle
    3. lambert
    4. lumen
    5. visible screen spectrum
    6. visible light
    7. light measurement
    8. brightness of fluoroscopic viewing
    9. optics
    10. vignetting
    11. magnification
    12. minification
Methods of Evaluation -
Quizzes, midterm and final examination.
Representative Text(s) -
Course Syllabus.
Syllabus on Fluoroscopy Radiation Protection, CA Dept. of Health Services, 6th Edition

Disciplines -
Radiologic Technology.
Method of Instruction -
Lecture, Discussion, Research, Laboratory Experiments.
Lab Content -
  1. Lab Objectives
    1. demonstrate various methods of reducing dose to the patient during fluoroscopy (patient radiation protection).
    2. illustrate ways how one can reduce exposure to self and personnel (operator protection).
    3. image recording during the exposure of phantom
    4. identify and practice ways of maintaining quality control of fluoro equipment and practice equipment operation.
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
Students have three directed reading assignments on pediatric radiation protection in fluoroscopy and patient and operator protection during fluoroscopic examinations. Students write reflective papers and answer questions on these topics.