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Effective: Summer 2015
R T 52CPRINCIPLES OF RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY III3 Unit(s)

Prerequisites: Prerequisite: R T 52B.
Grade Type: Letter Grade Only
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU
3 hours lecture. (36 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • Identify the components of the x-ray circuit.
  • Differentiate between step-up and step-down transformers.
Description -
Continuation of R T 52B. Expansion of the principles of x-ray physics, technique and radiation protection. This course emphasizes the circuity of the x-ray machine, automatic exposure control devices, quality management, radiographic quality and the resulting effect on radiation protection. Intended for students in the radiologic technology program.

Course Objectives -
The student will be able to:
  1. describe the x-ray circuit components and principles.
  2. evaluate the principles and application of automatic exposure control (AEC) systems and its effect on radiation protection.
  3. describe the troubleshooting methods used to maintain diagnostic x-ray tubes.
  4. describe the importance of a good quality management system and how it is accomplished.
  5. evaluate the factors of radiographic quality and discuss how the implementation of these factors effect radiation exposure to one's self, the patient and others.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
  1. Multimedia classroom
  2. Classroom with viewboxes
  3. Quality control test tools

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. X-Ray Circuit (Lec)
    1. Electricity
      1. Potential difference
      2. Current
        1. Direct
        2. Alternating
      3. Resistance
    2. Protective devices
      1. Ground
      2. Circuit breaker
    3. Transformers
      1. Step-up
      2. Step-down
    4. Components and functions
      1. Primary circuit
      2. Secondary circuit
      3. Filament circuit
    5. Rectification
      1. Purpose
      2. Solid state
      3. Types
        1. Single phase
        2. Three phase
        3. Falling load
        4. High frequency
    6. Automatic exposure control devices
      1. Ionization chambers
      2. Maximum reaction time
      3. Back-up time
      4. Positioning considerations
        1. Cell locations
        2. Cell size
        3. Cell sensitivity
      5. Compensating for variations of patient size and pathology
  2. Automatic exposure control devices (Lec)
    1. Ionization chambers
    2. Solid-state detector
    3. Minimum response time
    4. Back-up time
    5. Alignment/positioning considerations
      1. Cell locations
      2. Cell size
      3. Cell sensitivity/balance
      4. Compensation issues
      5. Patient size
      6. Pathology/metal
      7. Beam size
      8. Image receptor variations
  3. Troubleshooting diagnostic x-ray tubes (Lec)
    1. Extending tube life
      1. Warm-up procedures
      2. Rotor considerations
      3. Filament considerations
      4. Tube loading
      5. Tube movement
      6. Heat units
    2. Radiographic cooling chart
    3. Anode cooling chart
    4. Tube housing cooling chart
  4. Quality Control (Lec)
    1. Definitions
      1. Quality improvement/management
      2. Quality assurance
      3. Quality control
    2. Benefits
      1. Patient
      2. Reduction in radiation exposure
      3. Efficiency of patient care
      4. Departmental
      5. Consistency in production of quality diagnostic images
      6. Cost-effectiveness
    3. Elements
      1. Standards for quality
      2. Communications
      3. Quality management manual
      4. Responsibility and administration
      5. Test equipment, procedures and training
      6. Record-keeping
      7. Test review
      8. Evaluation
      9. Continuing education
    4. Generator calibration
      1. kVp
      2. Milliamperage
      3. Timer accuracy
    5. Miscellaneous
      1. Illuminator calibration
      2. Video monitor calibration
  5. Radiographic Quality (Lec)
    1. Definition
    2. Acceptable range
    3. Factors
      1. mAs
      2. kVp
      3. Distance
      4. Film-screen combinations
      5. Grids
      6. Beam limitation
      7. Patient considerations
      8. Anatomic part
      9. Pathology
      10. Processing
      11. Contrast media
      12. Filtration
      13. Heel effect
      14. Long and short scale contrast
      15. Subject contrast
      16. Photostimulable phosphors
      17. Signal to noise ratio
      18. Recorded Detail
        1. Definition
        2. Umbra
        3. Focal spot blur
        4. Geometric unsharpness
        5. SID
        6. OID
        7. Focal spot
        8. Screen/film contact
        9. Motion blur
        10. Voluntary and involuntary motion
        11. Image noise
        12. Quantum mottle
        13. Distortion
Methods of Evaluation -
Quizzes, midterms, and final examination.
Representative Text(s) -
Bushong, Stewart. Radiologic Science for Technologists. 10th edition. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby, 2013. ISBN-978-0-3230-8135-1

Disciplines -
Radiologic Technology
 
Method of Instruction -
Lecture, Discussion, Cooperative learning exercises, Demonstration.
 
Lab Content -
Not applicable.
 
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
Weekly reading assignments from text.