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Effective: Summer 2011

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: D H 60A and 60B.
Grade Type: Letter Grade Only
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU
2 hours lecture. (24 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • To test for comprehension, students were asked to match anatomical landmarks with a column of definitions
  • Recognize the radiographic anatomical features of the teeth and periodontium.
  • Using a diagnostic bitewing radiograph, the student will be able to interpret the presence or absence of caries.
Description -
Interpretation of intraoral and panoramic radiographs. Emphasis on normal, atypical and pathological structures. Identification of dental anomalies, dental materials and the interpretation of disease. Analysis of the progression of dental caries, periodontal disease, and periapical lesions. Intended for students in the dental hygiene program.

Course Objectives -
Course Objectives and Dental Hygiene Program Competencies
The student will be able to:
Dental Hygiene Process of Care
  1. evaluate radiographs in terms of typical and atypical anatomic features
  2. identify appearance of cancellous and cortical bone.
  3. identify periapical lesions and other radiolucent lesions.
  4. identify incipient, advanced and severe dental caries
  5. interpret radiographic signs of periodontal disease including alveolar crest height, crestal density, and furcation involvements.
  6. identify existing dental restorations and interpret radiographic evidence of overhangs and/or undercuts.
  7. identify radiographs belonging to a child, an adolescent with mixed dentition or an adult with full or missing teeth
Health Education Strategies
  1. explain all concepts associated with operator protection
  2. explain various ways to minimize dental radiation to patients
Infection & Hazard Control Procedures
  1. describe OSHA guidelines concerning procedures needed in the x-ray operatory before the exposure of an intraoral film
  2. explain how contaminated films are transported into the darkroom
  3. perform adequate infection control procedures when processing films
  4. list all hazardous wastes in the darkroom
Ethical & Legal Principles
  1. describe the legal requirements for:
    1. operation of radiographic equipment.
    2. performing radiographic service for a patient.
    3. use and ownership of radiographs.
    4. chart documentation relative to radiographic procedures.
    5. describe the ADA guidelines for dental radiographic frequency on new or returning patients with high or low caries risk.
  2. perform nonmaleficence for 'first do no harm' by placing a lead shield on every patient prior to radiation exposure.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Multimedia Classroom.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Radiographic features of teeth and the periodontium (Lec)
    1. enamel
    2. dentin
    3. pulp
    4. periodontal ligament space
    5. alveolar crest
    6. lamina dura
  2. Bitewing radiography and dental caries (Lec)
    1. principles and techniques of bitewing radiographs
    2. bitewing film holders
    3. bitewing horizontal and vertical angulations
    4. patient positioning
    5. equipment preparation
    6. film placement for premolar and molar exposures
    7. opening contacts
    8. radiographic examination of dental decay
    9. interproximal incipient, moderate and severe caries
    10. radiographic appearance of mesial/distal class II caries
    11. burnout
  3. Radiographic appearance of dental materials.(Lec)
    1. amalgam
    2. gold crowns/bridges
    3. porcelain bonded to metal crowns
    4. posts and pins
    5. implants and abutments
    6. composites/resins
    7. stainless steel crowns
  4. Radiographic Periapical Lesions (Lec)
    1. apical periodontitis
    2. apical abscess with and without fistula
    3. apical granuloma
    4. apical cyst
    5. apical condensing osteitis
  5. Panoramic Anatomical Landmarks (Lec)
  6. Radiographic Evidence of Atypical Root Morphology (Lec)
    1. concavities
    2. furcations
    3. fusion and concrescence
    4. accessory roots
    5. hypercementosis
    6. cervical enamel projections
    7. enamel pearls
    8. dilaceration
  7. Radiographic Evidence of Dental Caries(Lec)
    1. root caries
    2. recurrent caries
    3. incipient caries
    4. advanced caries
    5. severe caries
    6. occlusal caries
    7. interproximal caries
Methods of Evaluation -
  1. Midterm
  2. Final Written Exam
  3. Radiographic Interpretation Exercises
  4. Slide quizzes
Representative Text(s) -
Iannucci,Howerton: Dental Radiography, Principles and Techniques 3rd edition, Saunders 2006 ISBN# 13-978-0-7216-1575-2
Yamamoto, Judy. Dental Hygiene 68A Lecture Syllabus, 2010

Disciplines -
Dental Hygiene
Method of Instruction -
Lecture, discussion, and collaborative learning exercises.
Lab Content -
Not applicable.
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
Students will be creating a grid or a matrix to sort information into appropriate conceptual categories. This is done to have students notice and respond to discriminating features on processed films and to analyze and evaluate the content of what is read in each film.