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Effective: Summer 2011

Prerequisites: Prerequisite: D H 60A.
Grade Type: Letter Grade Only
Not Repeatable.
FHGE: Non-GE Transferable: CSU
3 hours laboratory. (36 hours total per quarter)

Student Learning Outcomes -
  • Demonstrate proper film placement techniques on a mannequin for intraoral films.
  • List the name and functions of the processing solutions.
Description -
Introduction to the radiology laboratory intended for the first year student enrolled in the dental hygiene program. Emphasis on dental x-ray techniques, film development and mounting. Radiation safety protection is practiced for all laboratory procedures. All films will be viewed for self-critique and instructor evaluation. Intended for students in the dental hygiene program.

Course Objectives -
Expected Outcomes & Dental Hygiene Program Competencies
The student will be able to:
Dental Hygiene Process of Care
  1. demonstrate the ability to expose a six film posterior bitewing survey with a maximum of two retakes.
  2. demonstrate the ability to expose a full mouth 20 film survey with a maximum of four retakes.
  3. analyze the specific film fault or limitation by recognizing and describing the improper procedure involved.
  4. produce the correct film that improves the quality of the faulty radiograph.
  5. apply modified techniques to compensate for anatomical variations.
  6. describe the procedure for pedodontic bitewing survey.
Health Education Strategies
  1. describe the radiographic procedures for all patient needs; ie. those in pain and those with including full or partial dentition.
Infection & Hazard Control Procedures
  1. demonstrate the ability to practice infection control in the radiographic clinical setting, and facilitate hazardous waste disposal of lead foil.
Ethical and Legal Principles
  1. exhibit attentiveness to patient's fears toward radiation.
  2. demonstrate a patient's right to privacy and confidentiality by not disclosing radiographic findings beyond the radiology lab.
Special Facilities and/or Equipment -
Dental radiology lab equipment: darkroom, red safety lights, automatic processors, processing cleaners, film, film cleaners, film holders, dental mannequins, viewbox, mounts, label maker, developer solution, fixer solution, hazardous waste containers, secondary containers, dental chairs, dental x-ray machine, digital sensor plates, scanner, computer, server, medical grade transparency film, internet access, duplicating machine, duplicating film.

Course Content (Body of knowledge) -
  1. Exposure of bitewing and full-mouth survey (Lab)
    1. parallel technique
    2. utilization of film holders
    3. process and mount all film
    4. film placement
    5. no more than 4 retakes on a FMX and 2 retakes on a BWX
  2. Dental X-Ray Film Processing (Lab)
    1. film composition
    2. latent image
    3. film speed and size of silver halide crystals
    4. darkroom requirements
    5. automatic film processing
    6. chemical composition and reactions in fixer
    7. chemical composition and reactions in developer
  3. Analysis of Film Errors (Lab)
    1. film exposing errors
    2. film technique errors
  4. Film Errors and Corrections (Lab)
    1. distortion
    2. backwards film
    3. blurred image
    4. underexposed film
    5. overexposed film
    6. clear film
    7. black film
    8. foreshortening
    9. cone cutting
    10. overlapping
    11. elongation
Methods of Evaluation -
  1. Lab requirements: detailed evaluation of parallel techniques, horizontal and vertical angulations, film placement, development and mounting of periapical and bitewing films on mannequins and a bitewing survey on a student partner.
  2. Written final exam.
Representative Text(s) -
Iannucci,Howerton. Dental Radiography, Principles and Techniques 3rd Edition, Saunders Publishing. 2006 ISBN# 13 978-0-7216-1575-2
Yamamoto, J. DH 60B Radiology Lecture Syllabus 2010.
Yamamoto, J. Radiology Lab Policy & Information Manual 2010-2011.

Disciplines -
Dental Hygiene
Method of Instruction -
Discussion, cooperative learning exercises, laboratory, demonstration, observation.
Lab Content -
Lab content includes:
  1. cubicle disinfection
  2. tray set-up for specific procedures
  3. aseptic technique
  4. patient eligibility
  5. film exposures
  6. film processing
  7. film viewing
  8. film evaluation
  9. darkroom maintenance
Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing and Outside of Class Assignments -
  1. An example of a writing assignments may include: list the steps involved in taking a FMS . Include cubicle disinfection, patient and room preparation, armamentarium and film placement. Additional steps may include processing and mounting of films.
  2. An example of a drawing assignment would be: given a FMS x-ray mount, draw the teeth included in each projection. Include proportioned teeth and roots, alveolar bone, significant intraoral landmarks and appropriate teeth for each film placement.